Examining scientific attitude scales in India: Development and validation of a new scale
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2020, 16(4), e2223, https://doi.org/10.29333/ijese/8557
In India a multitude of scientific attitude scales are available through various channels. The scales are standardized under local settings and most of the Indian researchers utilize these national level scales for the assessment of scientific attitudes. In this work 23 such Indian scales are reviewed over their psychometric properties. The study showed that most of the scales lack theoretical foundations and psychometric evidences. A scale by Bajwa & Mahajan (2012) is selected over its appropriate theoretical background. But many of the items are inappropriate, they failed in the validity check-up through 11-experts and 218-student tryout. Thus, a new scale is developed by retaining some of the items of the scale. The developed scale is standardized and validated through 200, 312 and 641 student tryouts. All statements in the developed scale show high item to scale correlation values. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) confirms the five sub-scales namely rationality, curiosity, open-mindedness, aversion to superstition and confidence in scientific method. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value of the scale is high i.e. 0.79. The scale establishes its content, construct, concurrent and discriminant validities. This study results in to a valid scientific attitude scale that can be utilized in further researches.
Khan, M., & Siddiqui, M. A. (2020). Examining scientific attitude scales in India: Development and validation of a new scale. Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 16(4), e2223. https://doi.org/10.29333/ijese/8557
Khan, M., and Siddiqui, M. A. (2020). Examining scientific attitude scales in India: Development and validation of a new scale. Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 16(4), e2223. https://doi.org/10.29333/ijese/8557
Khan M, Siddiqui MA. Examining scientific attitude scales in India: Development and validation of a new scale. INTERDISCIP J ENV SCI ED. 2020;16(4):e2223. https://doi.org/10.29333/ijese/8557
Khan M, Siddiqui MA. Examining scientific attitude scales in India: Development and validation of a new scale. INTERDISCIP J ENV SCI ED. 2020;16(4), e2223. https://doi.org/10.29333/ijese/8557
Khan, Moheeta, and Mohd Abid Siddiqui. "Examining scientific attitude scales in India: Development and validation of a new scale". Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education 2020 16 no. 4 (2020): e2223. https://doi.org/10.29333/ijese/8557
Khan, Moheeta et al. "Examining scientific attitude scales in India: Development and validation of a new scale". Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, vol. 16, no. 4, 2020, e2223. https://doi.org/10.29333/ijese/8557
- Ahmed, T. S. M. (2007). Effect of scientific aptitude and scientific attitude on academic achievement of secondary school students in Science (Karnatak University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/95379
- Ahuja, A. (2017). Study of scientific attitude in relation to science achievement scores among secondary school students. Educational Quest: An International Journal of Education and Applied Social Science, 8(1), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.5958/2230-7311.2017.00002.2
- Aiken, L. R., & Aiken, D. R. (1969). Recent research on attitudes concerning science. Science Education, 53(4), 295–305. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730530405
- Bajwa, S. & Mahajan, M. (2012). Scientific attitude scale. Agra: National Psychology Corporation.
- Balaji, G. (2017). Role of science teacher in developing scientific attitude among secondary school students. Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies, 4(37). https://doi.org/10.21922/srjis.v4i37.10552
- Barot, Y. K. (2013). A Study of scientific attitudes of students of secondary level in context of certain variables. International Journal for Research in Education, 2(1). Retrieved from www.raijmr.com
- Baumel, H. B., & Berger, J. J. (1965). An attempt to measure scientific attitudes. Science Education, 49(3), 267–269. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730490318
- Baweja, M. (2017). A study of errors and misconception in science in relation to scientific attitude among secondary school students. International Journal of Advance Research, 5(3), 1707–1710. https://doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/3682
- Bhagwat, S. (2006). Scientific attitude scale. Agra: National Psychology Corporation.
- Bhattacharjee, J. (2015). Construction of science attitude scale. International Research Journal of Interdisciplinary & Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(3), 35–42.
- Billeh, V. Y., & Zakhariades, G. A. (1975). The development and application of a scale for measuring scientific attitudes. Science Education, 59(2), 155–165. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730590203
- Blalock, C. L., Lichtenstein, M. J., Owen, S., Pruski, L., Marshall, C., & Toepperwein, M. (2008). In pursuit of validity: A comprehensive review of science attitude instruments 1935–2005. International Journal of Science Education, 30(7), 961–977. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690701344578
- Candrasekaran, S. (2014). Developing scientific attitude, critical thinking and creative intelligence of higher secondary school biology students by applying synectics techniques. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 3(6), 1–8. Retrieved from www.ijhssi.org
- Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1(2), 245–276. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr0102_10
- CBSE. (2016). Central Board of secondary education seneral studies (Syllabus and Guidelines) classes XI and XII. Retrieved from http://cbseacademic.nic.in/web_material/CurriculumMain20/SrSecondary/General_Studies.pdf
- CBSE. (2019). CBSE | Academics Unit: Curriculum/Syllabus. Retrieved 9 March 2020, from Curriculum for the Academic Year 2019-20 website: http://cbseacademic.nic.in/curriculum.html
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). NJ: Erlbaum Hillsdale.
- Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9. Retrieved from http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/
- Dani, D. N. (1989). Scientific attitude and cognitive styles. Retrieved from Google books.
- Drake, W. E. (1935). The need for a scientific attitude. The High School Journal, 18(7), 229-232. https://doi.org/10.2307/40366754
- Ekawati, E. Y. (2017). A model of scientific attitudes assessment by observation in physics learning based scientific approach: case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 795, 012056. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/795/1/012056
- Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage.
- Fraser, B. J. (1978). Use of content analysis in examining changes in science education aims over time. Science Education, 62(1), 135–141. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730620118
- Gakhar, S. C. & Kaur, A. (1985). Scientific attitude scale. Agra: National Psychology Corporation.
- Gardner, P. L. (1975). Attitudes to science: A review. studies in science education, 2(1), 1–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057267508559818
- Gauld, C. F., & Hukins, A. A. (1980). Scientific attitudes: A review. Studies in Science Education, 7(1), 129–161. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057268008559877
- George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Ghosh, S. (1986). A critical study of scientific attitude and aptitude of the students and determination of some determinants of scientific aptitude (University of Kalyani). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/241013
- Government of India. (1986). National Policy on Education 1986. Retrieved from https://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/upload_document/NPE86-mod92.pdf
- Grewal, A. (1990). Science attitude scale. Agra: National Psychology Corporation.
- Gupta, S. (2015). Influence of students’ gender and stream of study on scientific attitude and attitudes towards science. International Journal of Research - GRANTHAALAYAH, 3(12), 187–194.
- Haney, R. E. (1964). The development of scientific attitudes. The Science Teacher, 31(8), 33–35.
- Heiss, E. D. (1958). Helping Students develop a Scientific Attitude. The Science Teacher, 25(7), 371–373.
- Hubley, A. M. (2014). Discriminant Validity. In Alex C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 69-311). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_751
- Hunashal, S. S. (2013). A Study of Scientific Creativity Scientific Attitude and Scientific Interest in Relation to the Academic Achievement of Ninth Standard Students of Bijapur (Karnataka State Womens University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/160471
- Jain, S.N. (1967). An Investigation into The Construction of Scientific Attitude Scale for India Youth, New Delhi: Project Report NCERT
- Jones, B., & Butts, B. (1983). Development of a set of scales to measure selected scientific attitudes. Research in Science Education, 13(1), 133-140. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02356700
- Kaur, M., Niwas, R., & Rai, V. K. (2015). Achievement in science in relation to Sex, Habitation and Scientific Attitude of Higher Secondary School Students. International Journal of Scientific Research Education, 4(7), 7–10.
- Kavitha, S., & Venkateswaran, R. (2014). Relationship between scientific attitude and teaching competency of prospective B.Ed teachers. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 3(1), 60-65.
- Khan, M., & Siddiqui, M. A. (2018). A study of scientific attitude, teaching effectiveness and physics achievement among physicssenior secondary students. IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, 6(8), 71–78. Retrieved from www.impactjournals.us
- Khan, P. (1962). An experimental study to determine the effect of a selected procedure for teaching the scientific attitudes to seventh and eighth grade boys through the use of current events in science. Science Education, 46(2), 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730460209
- Koballa, T. R., & Glynn, S. M. (2013). Handbook of reseach on science education (S. K. Abell, K. Appleton, & D. L. Hanuscin, Eds.). https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203824696-8
- Kozlow, M. J., & Nay, M. A. (1976). An approach to measuring scientific attitudes. Science Education, 60(2), 147–172. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730600203
- Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x
- Lawson, D. E. (1959). Truth, values, and the scientific attitude. The Educational Forum, 24(1), 85–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725909339483
- Lin, W.-L., & Yao, G. (2014). Concurrent Validity. In Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 1184–1185). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_516
- Lucas, P. (2016). A study of scientific attitude and academic achievement in science of secondary school students in Thane city. Anveshana’s International Journal of Research in Education, Literature, Psychology and Library Sciences, 1(1), 68–74.
- Mahulae, P. S., Sirait, M., & Sirait, M. (2017). The effect of inquiry training learning model using PhET media and scientific attitude on students’ science process skills. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education, 7(5), 24–29. https://doi.org/10.9790/7388-0705012429
- Misra, K.S. 2008. Construction and standardization of scientific attitude questionnaire. Journal of Educational Studies, 4(1), 1-5.
- Moore, R. W., & Foy, R. L. H. (1997). The scientific attitude inventory: A revision (SAI II). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(4), 327–336. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2736(199704)34:4<327::AID-TEA3>3.0.CO;2-T
- National Council of Educational Research and Training, (2006). Position paper of national focus group on teaching of science, NCERT, New Delhi: India. Retrieved from http://www.ncert.nic.in/new_ncert/ncert/ rightside/links/ pdf/ focus_group/science.pdf
- National Council of Educational Research and Training. (2019). National Library of Education & Psychological Test (NLEPT) Catalogue of Tests. In Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education, NCERT. Retrieved from http://www.ncert.nic.in/announcements/oth_announcements/pdf_files/NLEPT_Catalogue.pdf
- National Curriculum Framework (2005). National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). New Delhi.
- National Psychological Corporation. (2019). Catalogue 2019. Retrieved from http://www.npcindia.com/downloads/Catalogue-NPC-2019.pdf
- Noll, V. H. (1935). Measuring the scientific attitude. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 30(2), 145–154. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0059829
- Nunnaly, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Osborne, J., Simon, S., & Collins, S. (2003). Attitudes towards science: A review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25(9), 1049–1079. https://doi.org/10.1080/0950069032000032199
- Ramachandra, S. (2017). A Case Study of Role of Scientific Attitude and Family Education of Mentally Retarded Dropouts Doctor of Philosophy in Education (Gulbarga University). Retrieved from http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/handle/10603/204666
- Ramya, K. S. (2018). A Study on Environmental Ethics Scientific Attitude And Attitude Towards Sustainable Development Among Secondary School Teachers (Mangalore University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/249855
- Ranganath, A. (2012). A study of creativity scientific attitude and attitude towards science of prospective science teachers of Andhra Pradesh (Acharya Nagarjuna University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/127013
- Rao, D. B. (2003). Scientific attitude vis-a-vis scientific aptitude (M. Ediger, Ed.). New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
- Rao, D. B. (2004). Scientific attitude, scientific aptitude and achievement (1st ed.). Retrieved from Google books.
- Rasani, S. (2017). Scientific Literacy and Scientific Attitude among Students at the Higher Secondary Level (Mother Teresa Women’s University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/178024
- Rashmi, J., & Betsur, N. C. (2017). A study on the relationship between scientific attitude and academic achievement among senior secondary level science students. Indian Streams Research Journal, 6(12), 1–5.
- Ravi, S. (2013). An investigation into scientific attitude and achievement in science of 9th class students in relation to certain psycho sociological factors (Sri Venkateswara University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/143924
- Sagar, J. V. (2003). Scientific attitude and higher education. New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
- Schibeci, R. A. (1981). Do teachers rate science attitude objectives as highly as cognitive objectives? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 18(1), 69–72. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660180111
- Schibeci, R. A. (1984). Attitudes to science: an update. Studies in Science Education, 11(1), 26–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057268408559913
- Shanthi, G. (2014). Scientific attitude and academic achievement of secondary school students in coimbatore district. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 2(2), 1.
- Singh, M. (1993). A study of the effect of problem solving teaching strategy on scientific attitude and scientific creative thinking of secondary school students of Jhansi division U P (Himachal Pradesh University). Retrieved from http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/handle/10603/128153
- Singh, Y. C., & Bai, A. C. (2017). A study of scientific attitude and science interest of secondary school students in West Tripura District. Paripex- Indian Journal of Research, 6(6), 171–173.
- Smitha, V. P. (2012). Inquiry training model and guided discovery learning for fostering critical thinking and scientific attitude (first edit). Retrieved from Google books.
- Sood, J. K. & Sandhya, R. P. (1978). In Hunshal, S. (2013). A Study of Scientific Creativity Scientific Attitude and Scientific Interest in Relation to the Academic Achievement of Ninth Standard Students of Bijapur (Karnataka State Women’s University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/160471.
- Srivastava, N. N. (1980). A study of scientific attitude and its measurement. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Patna University, Patna.
- Srivastava, S. (2013). A study of relationship between environmental moral reasoning and scientific attitude among secondary students. Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 3(4), 134–139.
- Srivastava, S. (2014). Achievement in science as predictors of students’ scientific attitude. European Academic Research, 2(2), 2879–2893.
- Sudipta, C. (2015). A Study on Scientific Attitude of Secondary School Students of Dibrugarh District of Assam (Dibrugarh University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/250121
- Sumita, S. S. (2017). A Study of scientific attitude development of junior college student through various activities in the junior college (Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibarewala University). Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/192856
- Supardi, R., Istiyono, E., & Setialaksana, W. (2019). Developing scientific attitudes instrument of students in chemistry. Journal of Physics: Conference Series Paper, 01233, 12025. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1233/1/012025
- Trivedi, P., & Agarwal, S. (2016). To study the scientific attitude and self-efficacy of secondary school students of Chandrapur district. Pune Research Scholar: An International Multidisciplinary Journal, 2(5), 1–6.
- Velicer, W. F., & Fava, J. L. (1998). Effects of variable and subject sampling on factor pattern recovery. Psychological Methods, 3(2), 231–251.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.