INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SCIENCE EDUCATION
Research Article

Relationships among Environmental Literacy, Locus of Control, and Future Orientation of STEM Students in the Philippines

Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(4), e2250, https://doi.org/10.21601/ijese/10984
Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

This study reports on the status and correlations among environmental literacy (EL), locus of control (LOC), and future orientation (FO) of STEM students (N = 512). The EL results showed a low rate of students’ Environmental Knowledge but high Environmental Skills. The LOC results revealed that students believed that they could best create environmental impacts through recycling yet least by advocating on the environment. They were also more inclined to considering distant outcomes or consequences of their actions rather than focusing on their immediate needs. The STEM students’ academic background, convenience, and personal benefit among others might have contributed to correlation results of EL, LOC, and FO reported in this study. It is suggested that ample opportunities be given to students to improve their EL. This may include going beyond environmental theories and engaging students in authentic experiences to provide them with active roles in learning environmental topics. Moreover, these topics should not only be consistently integrated among the fields of sciences but also in other subjects making them interdisciplinary, meaningful, and relatable.

KEYWORDS

environmental literacy environmental locus of control future orientation stem students gender difference in stem environmental education

CITATION (APA)

Gatan, P. R. G., Yangco, R., & Monterola, S. L. (2021). Relationships among Environmental Literacy, Locus of Control, and Future Orientation of STEM Students in the Philippines. Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 17(4), e2250. https://doi.org/10.21601/ijese/10984
Harvard
Gatan, P. R. G., Yangco, R., and Monterola, S. L. (2021). Relationships among Environmental Literacy, Locus of Control, and Future Orientation of STEM Students in the Philippines. Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 17(4), e2250. https://doi.org/10.21601/ijese/10984
Vancouver
Gatan PRG, Yangco R, Monterola SL. Relationships among Environmental Literacy, Locus of Control, and Future Orientation of STEM Students in the Philippines. INTERDISCIP J ENV SCI ED. 2021;17(4):e2250. https://doi.org/10.21601/ijese/10984
AMA
Gatan PRG, Yangco R, Monterola SL. Relationships among Environmental Literacy, Locus of Control, and Future Orientation of STEM Students in the Philippines. INTERDISCIP J ENV SCI ED. 2021;17(4), e2250. https://doi.org/10.21601/ijese/10984
Chicago
Gatan, Princes Raymunda Guzman, Rosanelia Yangco, and Sheryl Lyn Monterola. "Relationships among Environmental Literacy, Locus of Control, and Future Orientation of STEM Students in the Philippines". Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education 2021 17 no. 4 (2021): e2250. https://doi.org/10.21601/ijese/10984
MLA
Gatan, Princes Raymunda Guzman et al. "Relationships among Environmental Literacy, Locus of Control, and Future Orientation of STEM Students in the Philippines". Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, vol. 17, no. 4, 2021, e2250. https://doi.org/10.21601/ijese/10984

REFERENCES

  1. Alp, E., Ertepinar, H., Tekkaya, C., & Yilmaz, A. (2008). A statistical analysis of children’s environmental knowledge and attitudes in Turkey. Journal International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 15(3), 210-223. http://dx.doi.org/10.2167/irgee193.0
  2. Atewe, A., & Aloka, J. P. (2018). Influence of internal locus of control on mathematics achievement among students in secondary schools in Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research, 6(8), 153-162. http://www.ijern.com/journal/2018/August-2018/13.pdf
  3. Atibuni, D. Z., Ssenyonga, J., Olema, D. K., & Kemeza, I. (2017). Locus of control as a predictor of academic attitudes among university students. International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review, 4(6), 125-137. https://doi.org/10.15739/IJEPRR.17.014
  4. Balderjahn, I. (1988). Personality variables and environmental attitudes as predictors of ecologically responsible consumption patterns. Journal of Business Research, 17(1), 51-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(88)90022-7
  5. Boquet, Y. (2017). The Philippine archipelago. Springer Geography. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51926-5_15
  6. Brooks, M., & Hounshell, P. B. (1975). A study of locus of control and science achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 12(2), 175-181.
  7. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660120212
  8. Calsado, C. F. (2013). Students' personal demographics, cognitive styles, values, and decision making in environmental education. University of the Philippines.
  9. Cannon, J. R., & Scharmann, L. C. (1996). Influence of a cooperative early field experience on preservice elementary teachers' science self‐efficacy. Science Teacher Education, 80(4), 419-436. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199607)80:4<419::AID-SCE3>3.0.CO;2-G
  10. Carmi, N. (2012). Caring about tomorrow: Future orientation, environmental attitudes and behaviors. Environmental Education Research, 19(4), 430-444. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2012.700697
  11. Carmi, N., & Arnon, S. (2014). The role of future orientation in environmental behavior: Analyzing the relationship on the individual and cultural levels. Society and Natural Resources, 27(12), 1304-1320. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2014.928393.
  12. Chapman, D & Sharma, K. (2002). Environmental attitudes and behavior of primary and secondary students in Asian cities: An overview strategy for implementing an Eco-schools programme. The Environmentalist, 21(4), 265-272. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012996016601.
  13. Chmielewski, J., Kusztal, P., & Zeber-Dzikowska, I. (2018). Anthropogenic impact on the environment (case study). The Journal of Institute of Environmental Protection-National Research Institute, 29(1), 30-37. https://doi.org/10.2478/oszn-2018-0006
  14. Cimpian, J. R., Kim, T. H., & McDermott, Z. T. (2020). Understanding persistent gender gaps in STEM. Science, 368(6497), 1317-1319. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aba7377
  15. Cleveland, M., Kalamas, M., & Laroche, M. (2005). Shades of green: Linking environmental locus of control and pro-environmental behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(4), 198-212. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760510605317
  16. Cleveland, M., Kalamas, M., & Laroche, M. (2012). “It’s not easy being green”: Exploring green creeds, green deeds, and internal environmental locus of control. Psychology & Marketing, 29(5), 293-305. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20522
  17. Congress of the Philippines. (2008). Republic Act No. 9512: An Act to Promote Environmental Awareness through Environmental Education and for Other Purposes. Retrieved from The Law Phil Project: https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2008/ra_9512_2008.html
  18. Connell, D. (2009). Planning and its orientation to the future. International Planning Studies, 14(1), 85-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563470902741609
  19. Contreras, R. C., Catamin, R. D., Ciasico, M. C., & Cataluňa, M. P. (2015). Environmental literacy, concern and disaster preparedness among residents in municipality of Calinog, Western Visayas Region, Philippines. Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 3.
  20. Corral-Verdugo, V., Fraijo-Sing, B., & Pinheiro, J. Q. (2006). Sustainable behavior and time perspective: Present, past, and future orientations and their relationship with water conservation behavior. Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 40(2), 139-147.
  21. Coyle, K. (2005). Environmental literacy in America. Washington, DC: The National Environmental Education & Training Foundation.
  22. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Intrinsic motivation. Retrieved from Wiley Online Library: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0467
  23. De Dominicis, S. D., Schultz, P. W., & Bonaiuto, M. (2017). Protecting the environment for self-interested reasons: Altruism is not the only pathway to sustainability. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01065
  24. Department of Environment and Natural Resources. (2018). Saving boracay. Retrieved July 2018, from Department of Environment and Natural Resources: https://www.denr.gov.ph/news-and-features/features/4303-saving-boracay.html
  25. DepEd. (2012). K to 12 basic education curriculum. Retrieved May 2018, from Department of Education: http://www.deped.gov.ph/k-to-12/bec-cgs/als-program
  26. DepEd. (2015). Policy guidelines on classroom assessment for the k to 12 basic education program. Retrieved from Gov.ph: https://www.deped.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/DO_s2015_08.pdf
  27. DepEd. (2016). Deped.gov.ph. Retrieved from K to 12 Curriculum Guide Science: https://www.deped.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Science-CG_with-tagged-sci-equipment_revised.pdf
  28. Diekmann, A., & Preisendörfer, P. (2003). Green and greenback: The behavioral effects of environmental attitudes in low-cost and high-cost situations. Rationality and Society, 14(4), 441-472. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043463103154002
  29. Ebreo, A., & Vining, J. (2001). How similar are recycling and waste reduction? Environment and Behavior, 33(3), 424-448. https://doi.org/10.1177/00139160121973061
  30. Eddy, S. L., Brownell, S. E., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2017). Gender gaps in achievement and participation in multiple introductory biology classrooms. Life Sciences Education, 13, 478–492. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.13-10-0204
  31. Eisler, A., Eisler, H., & Yoshida, M. (2003). Perception of human ecology: Cross-cultural and gender comparisons. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(1), 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00083-X
  32. Environmental Performance Index. (2020). 2020 Environmental performance index. New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy
  33. European Environment Agency. (2016). Unsustainable consumption – the mother of all environmental issues? Retrieved from https://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/unsustainable-consumption-2013-the-mother
  34. Estonanto, A. J.J. (2017). Acceptability and difficulty of the STEM track implementation in senior high school. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 5(2), 43-50.
  35. Flores, J. A., Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra, Ramirez, C., Arancio, G., & Cofre, J. P. (2020). Locus of control, self-control, and gender as predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems in children and adolescents in northern Chile. Educational Psychology, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02015
  36. Ferguson J.M., Higgins L.F. (2015). Structure and locus of control in marketing courses. In: Hawes J.M., Glisan G.B. (eds) Proceedings of the 1987 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science.
  37. Garcia, M. N., & Cobar-Garcia. (2016). The environmental literacy of elementary school teachers based in the city Of Manila and Nueva Ecija Province. Journal of Nature Studies 17(2), 10-29.
  38. Garcia, V. P. (2013). ABS-CBN News. Retrieved June 2019, from How a Pinay garbage collector became a millionaire: https://news.abs-cbn.com/focus/07/24/13/how-pinay-garbage-collector-became-millionaire
  39. GMA Network. (2016). Youtube.com. Retrieved from Investigative Documentaries: 6 taong gulang na bata, nangangalakal sa ilog ng basura para kumita: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71GM5pUD6vI
  40. Giefer, M. M., Peterson, M. N., & Chen, X. (2019). Interactions among locus of control, environmental attitudes and pro-environmental behaviour in China. Environmental Conservation, 234-240. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892919000043
  41. Greene, B., & DeBacker, T. (2004). Gender and orientations toward the future: links to motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 16(2), 91-120. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EDPR.0000026608.50611.b4
  42. Griffin, D. P. (2014). Locus of control and psychological well-being: Separating the measurement of internal and external constructs -- A pilot study. EKU Libraries Research Award for Undergraduates. 2. http://encompass.eku.edu/ugra/2014/2014/2
  43. Hannafin, M. J. (1984). Guidelines for using locus of instructional control in the design of computer-assisted Instruction. Journal of instructional development, 7(6). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02905753
  44. Haurdy, D. L. (1988). Evidence that science locus of control orientation can be modified through instruction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 25(3), 233-246. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660250308
  45. Haudry, D. L. (1989). The contribution of science locus of control orientation to expressions of attitude toward science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 26(6), 503-517. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660260603
  46. Hayes, B. C. (2001). Gender, scientific knowledge, and attitudes toward the environment: A cross-national analysis. Political Research Quarterly, 53(3), 657-671. https://doi.org/10.2307/449275
  47. Hazari, Z., Tai, R. H., & Sadler, P. M. (2007). Gender differences in introductory university physics performance: The influence of high school physics preparation and affective factors. Science Education, 91, 847–876. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20223
  48. Hollweg, K., Taylor, J., Bybee, R., Marcinkowski, T., McBeth, W., & Zoido, P. (2011). Developing a framework for assessing environmental literacy. Retrieved June 2018, from North American Association for Environmental Education: https://cdn.naaee.org/sites/default/files/devframewkassessenvlitonlineed.pdf
  49. Honora, D. (2002). The relationship of gender and achievement to future outlook among African American adolescents. Adolescence, 37(146), 301-316.
  50. Honora, D. T. (2007). Time perspective and school membership as correlates to academic achievement among African American adolescents. Retrieved from National Library of Medicine. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18047236/
  51. Johnson, S. L., Blum, R., & Cheng, T. (2014). Future orientation: A construct with implications for adolescent health and wellbeing. International Journal of Adolescent Medical Health, 26(4), 459-468. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2013-0333
  52. Joireman, J. (2005). Environmental problems as social dilemmas. In A. Strathman, & J. Joireman, Understanding Behavior in the Context of Time (pp. 289-304). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  53. Joireman, J., Lasane, T. P., Bennett, J., Richards, D., & Solaimani, S. (2001). Integrating social value orientation and the consideration of future consequences within the extended norm activation model of proenvironmental behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(1), 133-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466601164731
  54. Joireman, J, Van Lange, P., & Van Vugt, M. (2003). Who cares about the environmental impact of cars? Those with an eye toward the future. Environment and Behavior, 35(X), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916503251476
  55. Katsuno, C., Gregorio, E. R., Lomboy, M. F., Nonaka, D., Hernandez, P. M., Estrada, C. A., Kobayashi, J. (2019). Quality of public school toilets and the frequency of changing sanitary napkins among students in public secondary schools in the City of Manila, Philippines. Tropical Medicine and Health, 5, https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-018-0131-8
  56. Kennedy-Moore, E., & Watson, J. C. (1999). Emotions and social behavior.Expressing emotion: Myths, realities, and therapeutic strategies. Guilford Press
  57. Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 239-260. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620220145401
  58. Korb, K. A. (2012). Conducting educational research. Retrieved from Adopting or Adapting an Instrument: http://korbedpsych.com/R09aAdopt.html#:~:text=In%20general%2C%20adopting%20(using%20verbatim,have%20to%20collect%20validity%20evidence.
  59. Latif, S. A., Omar, M. S., Bidin, Y. H., & Awang, Z. (2013). Role of environmental knowledge in creating pro-environmental residents. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 105, 866-874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.088
  60. Laureiro-Martinez D., Trujillo C. A., & Unda, J. (2017). Time perspective and age: A review of age associated differences. Frontiers in Psychology. 8(101). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00101
  61. Liang, S.-W., Fang, W.-T., Yeh, S.-C., Lui, S.-Y., Tsai, H.-M., Chou, J.-Y., & Ng, E. (2018). A nationwide survey evaluating the environmental literacy of undergraduate students in Taiwan. Sustainability, 10(6), 1730. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061730
  62. Li, J., Li, M., Wang, J., Li, J., Su, H., & Maoxing, H. (2014). Report on global environmental competitivenes. Retrieved from Global Environmental Issues and Human Wellbeing: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-54678-5_1
  63. Lopez, C. S. (1997). General and science loci of control as influenced by selected factors and as predictors of science attitude and achievement. University of the Philippines College of Education.
  64. Luckenbill-Edds, L. (2002). The educational pipeline for women in biology: No longer leaking? BioScience, 52(6), 513–521. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0513:TEPFWI]2.0.CO;2
  65. Marcinkowski, T. (2010). Contemporary challenges and opportunities in environmental education: Where are we headed and what deserves our attention? The Journal of Environmental Education, 41(1), 34-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/00958960903210015
  66. Marten, G. (2001). Human ecology - basic concepts for sustainable development. London: Earthscan Publications.
  67. McCarty, J. A., & Shrum, L. J. (2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behavior. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104. https://doi.org/10.1509/jppm.20.1.93.17291
  68. McCright, A. (2010). The effects of gender on climate change knowledge and concern in the American public. Population and Environment, 32. 66-87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-010-0113-1.
  69. Meinck, S., & Brese, F. (2019). Trends in gender gaps: using 20 years of evidence from TIMSS. Large-Scale Assessments in Education, 7(8). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40536-019-0076-3
  70. Mello, Z. R., & Worrell, F. C. (2006). The relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement among academically talented adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 29(3), 271-289. https://doi.org/10.1177/016235320602900302
  71. Mohd Khir, A., & Redzuan, M. (2017). Locus of control, future orientation, and academic achievement among Orang Asli Adolescents in Malaysia. Retrieved April 25, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319482306_Locus_of_Control_Future_Orientation_and_Academic_Achievement_among_Orang_Asli_Adolescents_in_Malaysia
  72. National Economic and Development Authority. (2017). Philippine development plan 2017-2022. Pasig City: National Economic and Development Authority. Retrieved January 20, 2019, from http://pdp.neda.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/PDP-2017-2022-07-20-2017.pdf
  73. National Geographic. (n.d.). Human impacts on the environment. Retrieved January 12, 2019, from National Geographic: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/topics/resource-library-human-impacts-environment/?q=&page=1&per_page=25
  74. Nunez, M. B., & Clores, M. A. (2017). Environmental literacy of K-10 student completers. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 10(5), 1195-1215.
  75. OECD. (2012). How “green” are today’s 15-year-olds? Retrieved September 2018, from PISA in Focus: https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/pisainfocus/50150271.pdf
  76. OECD. (2020). Gender and environmental statistics: Exploring available data and developing new evidence. Retrieved from OECD.org: http://www.oecd.org/environment/brochure-gender-and-environmental-statistics.pdf
  77. Official Gazette, (n.d.). What is K to 12 Program? Retrieved May 6, 2019, from Gov.ph: https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/k-12/
  78. Oliva, M. (2013). Environmental literacy among urban college students: Barriers and enabling forces. University of the Philippines.
  79. Prenda, K. M., & Lachman, M. E. (2001). Planning for the future: A life management strategy for increasing control and life satisfaction in adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 16(2), 206-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.16.2.206
  80. Ritchie, H. (2018). Plastic Pollution. Retrieved from Our World in Data: https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution#citation
  81. Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcements. Psychological Monographs, Whole No. 609.
  82. Sanford, C. (1985). Revision of the perceived environmental control measure. University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1793/80116
  83. Sherman, A. C., Higgs, G. E., & Williams, R. L. (2007). Gender differences in the locus of control construct. Psychology & Health, 239-248. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870449708407402
  84. Smith, C., & Watson, J. (2018). STEM: Silver Bullet for a viable future or just more flatland? Journal of Futures Studies, 18(4), 25-44. https://doi.org/10.6531/JFS.201806.22(4).0003
  85. Smith-Sebasto, N.J & Fortner, Rosanne W. (2010). The environmental action internal control index. The Journal of Environmental Education, 25(4), 23-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/00958964.1994.9941961
  86. Stockholm Resilience Centre. (n.d.). The nine planetary boundaries. Retrieved from Stockholm Resilience Centre : https://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/planetary-boundaries/planetary-boundaries/about-the-research/the-nine-planetary-boundaries.html
  87. Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behaviour. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(4), 742-752. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.66.4.742
  88. Taber, K. S. (2017). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273–1296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2
  89. UNESCO. (1978). Declaration of recommendations. Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education, (p. 38). Paris.
  90. UNESCO. (1997). Declaration on the responsibilities of the present generations towards future generations. Retrieved from UNESCO portal: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13178&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
  91. UNESCO. (2017). Cracking the code: girls' and women's education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Paris: UNESCO.
  92. United Nations. (2015). Resolution adopted by the general assembly on 25 September 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Developmen. Sustainable Development Goals Knowledge Platform.
  93. USAID. (2019). Environment. Retrieved from USAID: https://www.usaid.gov/philippines/energy-and-environment
  94. Venter, O. (2016). Population growth outpaces human ecological footprint. Retrieved May 2018, from University of British Columbia: https://www.unbc.ca/releases/40955/population-growth-outpaces-human-ecological-footprint
  95. Vicente-Molina, M., Fernandez-Sainz, A., & Izagirre-Olaizola, J. (2018). Does gender make a difference in pro-environmental behavior? The case of the Basque Country University students. Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, 89-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.079
  96. Wang, D. (2005). Students’ learning and locus of control in web-supplemental instruction. Innovative Higher Education. 30(1), 60-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-005-3299-x
  97. Weimer, K., Ahlström, R., Lisspers, J., & Lipsanen, J. (2017). Values, attitudes, moral judgment competence, locus of control and sense of coherence as determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and behavioral intentions. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), 4(5), 2568-2583.
  98. Williams, R. D. (2017). An Assessment of Environmental Literacy Among Oklahoma Public High School Students and the Factors Affecting Students' Environmental Literacy. Retrieved from Harvard Library Office for Scholarly Communication: https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/33826276
  99. World Economic Forum. (2017). The Global Gender Gap Report 2017. Retrieved from World Economic Forum: https://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2017.pdf
  100. Wu, E., Cheng, J.-Q., & Zhang, J.-B. (2020). Study on the environmental education demand and environmental literacy assessment of citizens in sustainable urban construction in Beijing. Sustainability, 12(1), 241. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010241
  101. Xiao, C., & Hong, D. (2016). Gender differences in concerns for the environment among the Chinese Public: An update. Society & Natural Resources, https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2016.1238986.
  102. Xiao, C., & McCright, A. M. (2013). Gender differences in environmental concern: Revisiting the institutional trust hypothesis in the USA. Environment and Behavior,47(1), 17-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916513491571
  103. Yumusak, A., Sargin, S. A., Baltaci, F., & Kehlani, R. R. (2016). Science and mathematics teacher candidates' environmental knowledge, awareness, behavior and attitudes. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 11(6), 1337-1346.
  104. Zimbardo, P. & Boyd, J. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271-1288. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1271

LICENSE

Creative Commons License
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.