Keyword: environment

29 results found.

Sustainability and Cultural Inclusion: Considering Ontological, Epistemological and Educational Diversity
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(3), e2273,
ABSTRACT: Cultural diversity is important in understanding human-nature relationships and suggesting ways to change them in the face of environmental crises. Therefore, it is important to examine how environmental education (EE) and education for sustainable development (ESD) consider cultural inclusion. The debate between different visions related to humanity, society, nature, the environment, the relationship between humans and the rest of nature, development, growth, etc. opens the spectrum to study cultural inclusion. This editorial briefly overviews how EE and ESD address cultural inclusion. This overview places such a debate as the basis of this special issue (SI) of the Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education (IJESE). Most of the papers in this SI are expanded and peer-reviewed versions of conferences presented at the Sustainable Globe Conference 2021. The papers highlight sustainability problems in different scenarios, propose alternative viewpoints to what sustainability or ESD establish, and use diverse methods for producing knowledge.
Research Article
Green Schools: An Examination of Practices and Possibilities in Alabama
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(4), e2292,
ABSTRACT: Green schools are schools that reduce environmental effects, improve the health and performance of students, and increase sustainability literacy. Green schools reinforce optimal learning aligned with resource efficiency and minimal pollution. This study implemented a descriptive survey research design to assess the extent to which green school practices are being applied in a three-county region of central Alabama. Survey results revealed inconsistent availability of green school practices at participating schools. Survey implications point to a need for more focused emphasis on green school practices and collaboration between schools, school faculties, and local education agencies.
Research Article
The Potential and Limitations of the Wadden Sea in University, School, and Out-Of-School Contexts From the Perspective of Biology Education
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(4), e2286,
ABSTRACT: This study explores the potential and the limitations of the UNESCO World Heritage Wadden Sea in terms of its relevance for teacher training in higher education and for teaching in schools and as an out-of-school place of learning. Interviews with experts from these three areas were conducted. The analysis was performed through qualitative content analysis. Within this framework, various factors were identified that should be considered in further biology didactics studies. The findings indicate that out-of-school learning receives too little emphasis in teacher education and that the Wadden Sea offers opportunities to address this deficit. In addition, clear limits were set for school lessons on this ecosystem in contrast to practical explorations of the Wadden Sea. Nevertheless, incorporating Wadden Sea content in the classroom makes sense since diverse topics can be vividly explored. Out-of-school learning at the Wadden Sea was found to have an immense potential in education for sustainable development and in environmental education. One obstacle is the students’ reported disgust towards the Wadden Sea. Based on the results, conclusions are drawn for all three areas considered in this study, providing concrete implications for related studies with a focus on biological education on the Wadden Sea.
Review Article
Socio-Environmental Complexities of the Global South: a Historical, Decolonial, Eco-Socialist and a Freirean Environmental Educational View
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(3), e2285,
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to analyze contemporary socio-environmental complexities, such as climate change and the increasing socio-environmental impacts on different social classes. Moreover, it addresses the systematic way in which the Global North exploits natural and human resources, which oppresses the populations of the Global South, increasing social inequality and potentiating the climate crisis. The historical context of environmental degradation is a key driver of the analysis, aligned with the perceived idealization of infinite economic development, which shapes the capitalist system’s exacerbated productivism and industrial development in order to expand its profit through increased consumption and perpetuate inequality. By raising fundamental questions in the context of the climate crisis, which disproportionately affects the populations of Global South countries, –whether in the realization of environmental disasters or the recovery time after a catastrophe–we seek to analyze how the organizational logic of asymmetry between Global North-South countries is driven by years of colonization and imperialism. And we present, as options in the attempt to break with this unsustainable system, eco-socialism and Freirean environmental education.
Research Article
Recovery of Biocultural Memory Through Environmental Education in the Community of Santa Cruz Ayotuxco
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(3), e2280,
ABSTRACT: The Mexican indigenous communities are characterized by the natural, historical, and cultural contribution they represent; this is the case of the town of Santa Cruz Ayotuxco, being part of the Otomi community. Sadly, their indigenous identity and conformation, have been fading away, which has generated migration and the shedding of their traditions. The community has been forgetting their traditional practices, as well as their original language and sense of belonging. Today, its inhabitants have adopted indifference and disinterest in the place where they live. Therefore, there is an evident environmental deterioration, complex urbanization and, what is most worrying, vulnerability and dispossession of their territory.
The present work intends to recover, value, and spread some ancestral knowledge and practices of the Otomi community, having direct contact with the elders of the town to motivate and connect with the younger generations. The main objective is to get the youth involved in the improvement of the land, their place of origin, and visualize the problems that arise, as well as revive the language and cultural traditions of the people.
That is why, through the work with the elderly and the formation of focus groups with other members of the community, the recovery and improvement the human-nature relationship could be achieved. A change could be expected in the attitude and values of the inhabitants that contribute to the cultural and social ties, as well as the sense of belonging with their environment.
Research Article
Importance of a Comparison Group and a Long-Term Follow-Up Test in Evaluating Environmental Education Experiences
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(4), e2277,
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the impacts on environmental literacy after a non-formal science-based program and compared the impacts to a non-formal non-science-based program. Both programs included children in grades six to eleven (ages 11 to 17) from the Syracuse, New York, USA area. Environmental literacy was assessed by administering environmental attitude and environmental knowledge pre-, post-, and follow-up tests to both programs’ participants. Initially, environmental attitude scores were higher for the participants in the science-based program. However, this was not a lasting impact. According to the follow-up test, attitude scores were not elevated for the science-based program. Without the follow-up tests given weeks after the program end, we could have inferred environmental attitudes were increased by the science-based program. Environmental knowledge was higher at the end of the science-based program but also increased in the comparison group. The gains in environmental knowledge were sustained for several weeks, but differences between the two programs did not persist. Without the comparison group we could have inferred that environmental knowledge increased solely due to the science-based program. These results show incorporating both a comparison group and a follow-up assessment are necessary to properly evaluate the effectiveness of increasing environmental literacy from science-based programs.
Research Article
The Perceptions of Fifth-Graders Following Ecology Service Learning–The Case of the “Lesser Kestrel Day”
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(4), e2276,
ABSTRACT: An instrumental case study examined the experiences and emotions of fifth-graders, aged 10-11, following their service-learning, which was designed to help the Lesser Kestrel, an endangered species in Israel. The case study methodology used three research tools that included analyses of drawings and explanations, personal reflections, and focus groups. The research revealed four processes that students went through: emotional, social, cognitive and behavioral. These processes supported the creation of an educational setting that allowed students to develop as independent learners with responsibilities towards their peers and a high level of empathy while experiencing environmental citizenship. In addition, the successful experience generated a positive feeling together with pro-environmental behavior leading towards biodiversity conservation.
Research Article
Bhutanese Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives on Approaches to Teaching ESD Through Environmental Science
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(2), e2272,
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the teaching pedagogies deployed in teaching environmental science (ES) to adequately prepare Bhutanese youth with the knowledge, values, attitudes and skills to engage in sustainable environmental conservation that supports the country’s pursuit of Gross National Happiness. A mixed-method research strategy was employed that collected data in the form of surveys and interviews with 14 teachers, surveys with 563 students, interviews with 194 students through (46) focus groups and six classroom observations. The data indicated that the transmissive approach (teacher talk), discursive activities (presentation and group discussions), and textbook-based activities of reading and solving problems from ES textbooks are the most predominant teaching approaches implemented in teaching ES. Students are engaged in critical thinking, empirical real-world and book-based research and maintaining an environmental profile; however, there is a lack of hands-on activities of projects, experiments, fieldwork, exhibitions and surveying and interviewing people. Teachers identified that lack of time, examination-based assessments, the large syllabus and a lack of resources are the factors that impede learning activities in ES. Therefore, there is a need for more emphasis on teachers’ professional development on transformative teaching pedagogies for effective implementation of ES that will prepare students for the pursuit of environmental sustainability.
Research Article
Interpretation of the Reality in Environmental Education: Identification of Mono-, Multi-, Inter-, Trans-Disciplinary and Inter-Epistemic Experiences
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(3), e2274,
ABSTRACT: The interpretation of reality is relevant to transforming environmental contexts. Environmental education (EE) might contribute to building more complex interpretations of reality. It seems that integrating disciplines is a way to reach complexity in interpreting reality. However, it is not easy for professionals and teachers to achieve such integration. Therefore, this paper aims to illustrate different interpretations of reality through specific educational reports on EE. This work is a qualitative and descriptive study of cases. The units to study are experiences in EE. The cases’ selection depends on whether the document describes an experience or a practical proposal on developing EE. The analysis classifies the experiences as monodisciplinary, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, inter-epistemological or transdisciplinary. The results describe three cases per category. The discussion highlights that all the interpretations of reality are valuable and contribute, but a more complex framework probably will lead communities to broader and more profound interpretation and action.
Research Article
More Than Twenty Years of Value-Belief-Norm Theory of Environmentalism: What Has Been and Yet To Be Done?
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(2), e2269,
ABSTRACT: It has been more than 20 years since the value-belief-norm theory of environmentalism has been conceptualized. The said theory has been used as a lens and has guided scholars in exploring and understanding pro-environmental behavior, however to date, there has been no study conducted that attempted to explore and report the bibliometric properties of studies related thereto. Aimed at determining research opportunities and future research directions, this paper reports a study that explored the bibliometric properties of studies conducted pertaining to the above-mentioned theory. Data were extracted from Scopus database and analyzed using Microsoft Excel, Publish or Perish, and VOSviewer. Results showed that while there is an increasing trend of studies using value-belief-norm theory, there is still considerably small and limited number of papers published, as well as scholars, institutions, and countries engaged on studies using the theory. Considering the inter/multidisciplinary nature of pro-environmental behavior, it may be necessary to encourage the conduct of more context-specific studies using available and more advanced methods across cultures, sectors, and levels.
Research Article
Education for Sustainable Development in Saudi Arabia: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Media and Government Policy Documents
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(2), e2266,
ABSTRACT: This qualitative study examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s policy of integrating Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) into the Saudi education system under the country’s Vision 2030 sustainable development strategy. The study specifically asks: how is the policy of integrating ESD in the Saudi education system presented in the discourses of the Saudi government policy documents and the written media? The study examines two types of documents, namely official policy documents published by the governmental entities involved in the planning and/or the execution of the ESD integration policy, and newspaper articles collected from the three top-ranked Saudi newspapers (Arab News, Asharq Al-Awsat, and Al Riyadh). Thematic coding was used to identify themes and sub-themes in the collected documents. In addition, Fairclough’s model of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was employed to offer a deeper understanding of whether Saudi Arabia meaningfully aims at integrating sustainable development into its education planning in Vision 2030. Results suggest that Vision 2030 does not consider ESD as a main tool to achieve sustainability and preserve the environment. The analysis reveals that there are very limited discussion of ESD integration in Vision 2030, both in the media coverage as well as the government official documents. Moreover, the CDA of the collected data shows there is a great generalism in the language used in presenting the road map to implementing ESD, and considerable vagueness on the proposed procedures for integrating ESD into the Saudi education system. Consequently, there is a lack of a comprehensive strategic plan with pre-determined steps. The findings of the study suggest that despite statements to the contrary, the Saudi government is not taking the plan of ESD integration into education seriously.
Research Article
Bhutanese Teachers' and Students' Perceptions about Environmental Issues in Bhutan
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(1), e2263,
ABSTRACT: Bhutan aspires to achieve Gross National Happiness (GNH) through sustainable environmental conservation and socioeconomic development. However, the country is facing increasing environmental challenges. Education is considered to be a key component in a range of efforts to remediate current environmental threats in Bhutan. As part of this agenda, the optional school subject of Environmental Science was introduced in 2015 for Classes IX–XII with the aim of equipping young people with the knowledge and values to protect the environment and promote sustainable and equitable use of natural resources in the pursuit of GNH. This paper focuses on the qualitative aspect of a broader mixed-method research project that explored the effective implementation of Environmental Science in secondary schools in the Samtse region of Bhutan. This study answers the research question: “What are teachers’ and students’ views about environmental problems in Bhutan?” Drawing on interviews of 14 teachers and 194 students engaged in Environmental Science, the results showed that participants were aware of various environmental problems; however, they lacked knowledge and awareness about climate change issues in Bhutan. The results suggest the need for more emphasis on climate change education in Bhutan. The student participants believed in collectivism to address the environmental challenges, indicating a strong cultural influence that schools could leverage to address sustainability issues through community participation.
Research Article
Environmental Attitudes Among Undergraduate Students at a South African University
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, 18(1), e2260,
ABSTRACT: Understanding environmental attitudes (EAs) has been viewed as prerequisite to changing environmental behaviour and is a particularly salient topic in the context of higher educational institutions which play an important role in shaping students’ worldviews. As such, the study aimed to explore EAs of undergraduate students at three different campuses of a South African University (n = 1283) and to examine how these EAs differ in terms of students’ demographic characteristics. A structured questionnaire was used to collect biographical data, and EAs were assessed via the Revised New Ecological Paradigm Scale (NEP) and the Environmental Attitudes Inventory (Short form) (EAI-24). Results indicated that students’ EAs lean more towards utilization, which is an anti-environmental factor, than to the pro-environmental factor of preservation. Furthermore, demographic factors such as gender and ethnicity were significantly, but often a-stereotypically associated with students’ EAs. These results have practical implications for tailoring environmental-based interventions aimed at enhancing pro-environmental attitudes among students. However, the results also raise concerns about the cross-cultural validity and efficacy of some EA-related measuring instruments and environmental organizations, and suggest that a need exists to develop culturally sensitive EA measures, as well as environmental organizations that incorporate a greater focus on social justice and indigenous knowledge systems.
Research Article
Localizing Discussions of Climate Change Effects May Not Increase Students' Willingness to Engage in Pro-Environmental Behavior
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(4), e2257,
ABSTRACT: While acceptance of the reality of climate change is rising among the U.S. population, there still exists an inconsistent willingness of individuals to engage in pro-environmental behaviors (WPEB) to mitigate anthropogenic drivers of warming. Decreasing the temporal and spatial psychological distance between the adverse effects of climate change and students' home communities is one proposed approach that environmental science teachers can take to motivate students to take up attitudes to engage in pro-environmental action. This study used data from a large public survey of Americans' perceptions of climate change to better understand whether existing conceptions of the distance of the effects of climate change affects self-reported WPEB. Two ordinal logistic regression models were constructed to compare temporal distance of effects and spatial distance of effects respectively to the WPEB construct. Both models showed the inverse of the expected relationship, where participants who perceived the effects of climate change as more psychologically distant displayed a greater WPEB. These finding suggest that localizing discussions of climate change alone may not be sufficient to increase students' WPEB.
Research Article
Allying With The Plants: A Pedagogical Path Towards The Planthroposcene
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(4), e2249,
ABSTRACT: The notion of the Planthroposcene is based on an attempt to disconnect from the sustainability rhetoric of the Anthropocene and to choose to overcome the ecological crisis through an ecocentric path. In the current research, students of a Pedagogical Department at a University in Greece were encouraged to investigate their relationship with plants, to ally with them and to reflect on their experience, experimenting in an alternative way of empowering their ecological consciousness, away from the traditional environmental education practice based on sustainability. They designed and proposed activities, exploring and strengthening their connection to plants. Their activities were implemented through mindfulness techniques (meditation, yoga), art-based practices (drawing, dramatization, poem writing, dance) and taking action. The data analysis revealed that the students through their activities practiced participatory observation, communication, sensorial and embodied experience with plants. The manifestation of empathy for the otherness of plant-being also took place.
Research Article
Relationships among Environmental Literacy, Locus of Control, and Future Orientation of STEM Students in the Philippines
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(4), e2250,
ABSTRACT: This study reports on the status and correlations among environmental literacy (EL), locus of control (LOC), and future orientation (FO) of STEM students (N = 512). The EL results showed a low rate of students’ Environmental Knowledge but high Environmental Skills. The LOC results revealed that students believed that they could best create environmental impacts through recycling yet least by advocating on the environment. They were also more inclined to considering distant outcomes or consequences of their actions rather than focusing on their immediate needs. The STEM students’ academic background, convenience, and personal benefit among others might have contributed to correlation results of EL, LOC, and FO reported in this study. It is suggested that ample opportunities be given to students to improve their EL. This may include going beyond environmental theories and engaging students in authentic experiences to provide them with active roles in learning environmental topics. Moreover, these topics should not only be consistently integrated among the fields of sciences but also in other subjects making them interdisciplinary, meaningful, and relatable.
Research Article
Student Mental Models of the Longleaf Pine Ecosystem
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(4), e2254,
ABSTRACT: There is a nationwide focus in science education in the United States on the ability of students to develop and use models. Using the Contextual Model of Learning that considers learning is inseparably bound to the context in which it occurs, this study looks at drawings of the longleaf pine ecosystem created by 293 4th Grade students prior to and again after their multiple day visits to an environmental education center in the southeastern United States. Using flora and fauna processes considered as indicative of the ecosystem by ecologists, seven distinct mental model categories were developed from student artifacts. Comparison of the pre to post-frequencies in each model demonstrate a statistically significant increasing level of sophistication in the mental models to more closely approximate the conceptual models of ecologists after participation in instruction at the Center. Progression to more sophisticated mental models was documented even when addressing these models and their development was not a direct intent of the instruction. These data also support the importance that context can play in the learning of ecological concepts and the significance of including informal experiences to the formal K-12 curriculum.
Research Article
Reconnecting Children with Nature: Foundation and Growth of the Nature Schools Movement in Iran
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(3), e2244,
ABSTRACT: The Nature Schools movement in Iran commenced in 2014 and expanded steadily for half a decade, growing to almost 100 schools. Emulating similar educational inititives in Europe and North America, Nature Schools offered outdoor educational experiences for pre-school and primary school years, spreading across both metropolitan and regional Iran. Before the first Nature Schools were started, detailed initial planning between academics and the government Environment Department and Education Ministry was undertaken which projected the roll-out of many more Nature Schools. The results of this study demonstrated that the establishment and growth pattern of the Iranian Nature Schools had different causes stimulating its commencement, how these schools released a new pedagogical practice for teachers, children and their families and how this movement offered an alternative curriculum in nature with school children outdoors. Thus, despite the eclipse of the Nature School movement, a longer time-frame indicates positive aspects, including the establishment of green or eco-schools and the institutionalization of the environmental focus in pre-school education. Many educators saw Nature Schools benefitting students’ personal learning and academic development. Political concerns after several years of growth led to some closures and slowing down of the growth of Nature Schools in 2018-19. At the same time, a new national environmental curriculum was being embedded across all age-levels of schooling in Iran.
Research Article
Bringing Environmental Education to the Curriculum: Practical Elements Emergent from Teaching Experiences and Research  
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(3), e2236,
ABSTRACT: Bringing theories or policies about environmental education into the classroom is a common problem that  teachers must confront. The purpose of this paper is to provide teachers with practical elements emergent from teaching experiences and research. A Complex Environmental Formation framework is proposed to curricularize a self-eco-organized understanding of the environment and being. Methodologically, three cases are studied using in two methods – a content analysis to identify emergent teaching elements, and a conducted analysis using the framework. The analysis and results indicate some potentially transferable teaching elements –a) selecting local environmental situations to contextualize curriculum, b) integrating knowledge for reading/transforming reality, c) guiding teaching and learning through questions, d) competence-based teaching and learning, e) project-based teaching and learning, f) assessing cooperatively and with formative purpose, g) addressing environmental education from different educational approaches, and h) breaking institutional barriers. There is an approximation to self-eco-organize the subject, communities, institutions, knowledge, learning, teaching, and assessment.
Research Article
Determinants of Undergraduates’ Environmental Behavioural Intentions and Their Links to Socioscientific Issues Education
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(2), e2231,
ABSTRACT: Socioscientific issues (SSI) education provides a framework for students to learn about controversial scientific topics such as climate change, vaccines, and genetic engineering, but rarely measures specific personal factors in student decision-making. SSI educators might benefit from building on behavior theories such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Value-Belief-Norm Theory of Environmentalism (VBN) in examining how students make decisions about different types of environmental issues. Undergraduate students (n=132) were surveyed to investigate for which types of behavior TPB, VBN, or both theories are most effective, and to explore whether climate change knowledge was a significant predictor of behavior. Behaviors were divided into indirect behaviors with recycling as a direct behavior comparison. The combined theories of behavior best predicted behavioral intentions in regression models over either theory individually. Recycling, a direct environmental behavior, was predicted by different determinants than three indirect environmental behaviors. Climate change knowledge was not a significant predictor in any of the models. These results support the use of different behavior models for different behaviors and exploration of subjective and personal norms around environmental behavior in the SSI classroom.
Research Article
Environmental Immersion and Mobile Filmmaking for Science Education: a New Zealand Pilot Study
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(1), e2228,
ABSTRACT: To test whether environmental immersion and mobile filmmaking (using smartphones or tablets) can engender positive attitudes to science, seventeen Year 10 (14-15 years old) drama students from Queen’s High School, New Zealand, were taken to Westland National Park to make videos about climate change using iPads (Immersion Group). Another fourteen students (Control Group) remained in Dunedin and also produced videos about climate change. Both groups had equal access to equipment, tutoring, incentives and footage. Yet, students in the Immersion Group were more likely to complete videos and produced videos of a higher quality. While there were no differences between the two groups in their attitudes to science before the experiment, afterwards the Immersion Group students had significantly more positive attitudes to doing science at school and beyond. The combination of environmental immersion and mobile filmmaking substantially increased interest in the environment and climate change, suggesting that it offers a promising tool for science education.
Research Article
The Use of The Lesser Kestrel’s Life Cycle to Enhance Elementary School Children’s Understanding of Complex Systems
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2021, 17(1), e2226,
ABSTRACT: Understanding the complexity of ecological system is crucial if one is to achieve a proper understanding of what they are and how they function. This study followed an environmental education program designed to introduce fifth grade students from a highly rural community to the world of ornithology and to the importance of maintaining the biodiversity of birds in nature. Its goal was to explore the program’s influence on the development of these students’ system thinking skills in the context of the life-cycle of the Lesser Kestrel (LK). Students’ perceptions of system complexity were tracked using the repertory grid technique, which takes the form of a highly structured interview in which constructs represent participants’ interpretations of various elements and the relationships between them. The results indicate that these fifth graders developed a significantly complex view of the LK’s ecosystem. Participation in the program developed the ability of some of the students to generalize and to identify changes that occurred in the birds’ ecosystem over time. Design elements such as longitudinal real-time observations and learning about the kestrel’s life-cycle while examining its interaction with its environment were found to be important for system thinking development. These cognitive tools may enable students to better cope with complex, biodiversity-related environmental issues in the future.
Research Article
Validity and Reliability of Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study of New Zealand Dairy Production
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2020, 16(3), e2219,
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work is to evaluate the validity and reliability of life cycle assessment as a research methodology to measure the ecological footprint of New Zealand’s dairy production (by the dairy farming and dairy processing sectors). Environmental Input-Output Analysis was used as a macro-level life cycle assessment tool and applied to the dairy production over a period of six years. Eco-efficiencies were used as performance metrics to assess the sustainability of the dairy production. Over the six year period, New Zealand’s annual milk production increased from 11.4 to 15.1 million tonnes and its annual production of dairy products increased from 1.9 to 2.6 million tonnes. Eco-efficiencies indicate that over this time dairy farming became significantly more efficient in terms of land use (-27%), electricity use (-12%), water use (-21%) and lime use (-16%) and produced significantly less water-based effluent (-20%). At the same time fuel and fertilizer use were slightly less efficient (increasing by 2% and 6% respectively). The dairy processing industry used 21% less water and discharged 21% less effluent water. Fuel used in milk transportation was 14% more efficient. The internal validity of the research was good despite significant structural changes to the dairy processing sector but commercial sensitivity had a negative impact on the results. External validity was affected by different boundaries, different climates and different time frames for published studies but some comparisons were possible. The underlying data was generally accurate, reproducible and representative of the entire sectors with checks for anomalies to ensure good reliability.  The choice of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for the life cycle assessment tool and error analysis of all underlying data contributed to both the validity of the research method and the reliability of the data. These, in turn, give good credibility to the research findings.
Research Article
The Environmental Influence on the Social Activity of Birds in Buea University Campus, Southwest Region, Cameroon
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2020, 16(2), e2210,
ABSTRACT: In the next decade, urban sprawl might reach such a magnitude that several natural areas surrounding cities will give way to buildings and residential areas. Although some long-term efforts to understanding wildlife dynamics in cities are under way, very little has been done in understanding the influence of urban expansion on wildlife and developing a management strategies aimed at diminishing these impacts. There is a need to study urban biodiversity and include ecological knowledge in urban planning. However, this study was focused on assessing the environmental influence on the social activity of birds in Buea university campus. The data was collected on check-sheets for a period of 2 months, 6 days a week, from 7:00am – 6:00pm. The spot-count data collection method used witnessed 616 bird observations during the study. Simultaneously, data was collected on environmental condition, day-period, bird species, bird location, and bird number. The results of this study showed a significant link between bird activity and bird species, χ2 = 171.953 df=48 P=0.000. Similarly, activity of birds showed association on bird number, χ2 = 120.254 df=40 P=0.000. The environmental conditions associated significantly with bird number, χ2 = 35.669 df=30, P<0.05. Also, bird species associated significantly with the day-period, χ2 = 171.953 df=48, P=0.000. Additionally, environmental conditions associated with bird location, χ2 = 7.921 df=6 P<0.05. Moreover, the environmental condition associated significantly with bird activity, χ2 = 28.925 df=12 P=0.004.
All the bird species observed during the survey displayed a significant activity state, however, species such as village weaver (Ploceus cucullatus), little weaver (Ploceus luteolus), and black-headed weaver (Ploceus melanocephalus), recorded 17.86%, 11.36%, and 7.31% respectively, and were observed with a higher activity frequency as compared to other bird species. The environmental role on wildlife species such as birds significantly determines their geographical distribution and endemism on the earth planet.
Research Article
Exploring the Attitudes of Secondary Education Students on Environmental Education in Relation to their Perceptions on Environmental Problems: The Case of the Prefecture of Viotia
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2020, 16(1), e02208,
ABSTRACT: In this paper we explore the attitudes of secondary education students towards environmental problems and environmental education. The study took place in Viotia prefecture in Greece, a largely heterogeneous area with a high degree of industrialization and consequent environmental problems. Data were collected through a survey and the sample size was 1059 students. The main findings involve the relation of the students’ perceptions on environmental education with factors such as their awareness of environmental problems, gender, family background, type of school, and place of residence. The findings also indicate that the more aware of the environmental problems the students were, the more willing they were to participate in environmental education programs. Our findings could provide relevant insights for the design of Environmental Education implementation policies.
Research Article
The Strategy of Environmental School through the Program of National Adiwiyata School in Pekanbaru (High School Level)
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2019, 15(1), e02204,
ABSTRACT: Purpose of this study is: (1) Analyze the effective strategies for the implementation of Adiwiyata schools in Pekanbaru and (2) Analyze the condition of environmentally-friendly infrastructures so that it can become a culture in Pekanbaru High Schools. The type of this research is an exploratory research (case study). In the early stage, there was a grouping of analysis variables at the research location which is in several Pekanbaru High Schools. This research was also carried out on the actors of teaching and learning activities as well as school managers who have activities with the sample set based on the key person method approach. A number of data obtained through interviews with selected respondents will also be carried out with an in-depth interview method (Bungin, 2008). As research samples, the key informants are school managers and policymakers who are considered representative to get the data needed. This initial data will be the basis for the preparation of the research questionnaire. As respondents, the key informants are students, teachers, principals, and administrative staffs. This research was conducted from September to November 2017 in several Pekanbaru High Schools.
Research Article
Environmental Literacy: Evaluating Knowledge, Affect, and Behavior of Pre-service Teachers in Greece
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2019, 15(1), e02202,
ABSTRACT: Environmental Literacy can empower individuals to make appropriate environment-related choices and act more responsibly towards the environment. Environmental literacy was measured among a sample of 461 pre-service teachers enrolled at the Department of Pre-school Education at the University of Ioannina, in Greece. Results indicate that pre-service teachers have positive attitudes towards the environment, a moderate level of environmental knowledge while their participation in environmental actions is limited, particularly collective actions. Statistical analyses also highlighted that Environment Literacy depends on year of study and high school course specialization. These findings are further discussed.
Research Article
The TELA: A New Tool for Assessing Educator Environmental Literacy
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2019, 15(1), e02201,
ABSTRACT: This paper describes the measurement and outcomes of a novel teacher environmental literacy assessment. The Teacher Environmental Literacy Assessment (TELA) uses a contextual view of environmental literacy, and includes measures of Knowledge, Self-efficacy, Environmental Identity, Behavior, Issue Identification, and Strategy Selection. A sample of formal and nonformal educators and experts were selected to take and be interviewed about TELA responses. We found demographic differences, particularly between nonformal and formal educators. In addition, experts chose different types of strategies to address environmental issues than educators. The TELA can identify gaps in educator environmental literacy, which is vital content knowledge for educators.
Research Article
Green Policy Awareness and Secondary School Teachers’ Perception of Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching Environmental Education in Cross River State, Nigeria
Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2020, 16(1), e02203,
ABSTRACT: This study analyzed green policy awareness and secondary school teachers’ perception of interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of Environmental Education in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was guided by a research question which was transformed into a research hypothesis. The survey research design was used in the study. The population of the study consisted of the total number of teachers in Cross River State public secondary schools as at 2017 which was put at 5,194. A sample of 1030 respondents were used for the study a0nd a structured questionnaire was used to gather data which was analyzed with a simple linear regression analysis. The study found out that, teachers green policy awareness significantly predicted their perception of interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of Environmental Education. It was therefore recommended that, teachers should be proactive and diligent in teaching Environmental Education through their traditional teaching subjects. Moreso, since they are aware that environmental issues are imbeded in the school curriculum, it should be infused in their traditional teaching subjects.